What Is the Definition of Ergogenic Aids

What Is the Definition of Ergogenic Aids

During short, high-intensity training, adenosine diphosphate is rephosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by muscle phosphocreatine stores. When muscle phosphocreatine stores are depleted, performance decreases. Oral creatine supplementation can increase muscle phosphocreatine stores by 6-8%. Increasing the available muscle reserves of phosphocreatine leads to a faster recovery of ATP, which helps reduce rest time between activities and increase energy for repeated workouts. High muscle creatine also buffers lactic acid produced during exercise and delays muscle fatigue and pain. As with any ergogenic aid, increased motivation can result from expected or perceived benefits, resulting in increased effort (placebo effect). Many ergogenic aids that claim to improve athletic performance are used by both amateur and professional athletes. About 50% of the general population reported taking some form of supplement, while 76 to 100% of athletes in certain sports are expected to use them. Doctors can evaluate these products by looking at four factors (method of action, available research, side effects, legality) that help them advise patients.

Common ergogenic aids include anabolic steroids, which increase muscle mass. These illegal supplements are associated with a number of serious side effects, some of which are irreversible. Creatine modestly improves athletic performance and appears to be relatively safe. Dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedone do not improve athletic performance, but apparently have side effects similar to testosterone and are also banned by some sports organizations. Caffeine has mild benefits and side effects and is banned above certain levels. Products that combine caffeine with other stimulants (e.B. ephedrine) have been linked to deadly events. Protein and carbohydrate supplementation offers modest benefits without major side effects. When a patient requests a specific ergogenic aid, based on current research, he should be informed of what is known and unknown about the product, including the profile of side effects. The danger is that once athletes start using a commercial supplement, they will continue to use more and end up trying something that may not be safe.

Many athletes feel compelled to use supplements to gain a competitive advantage over their supplements. If doctors can keep athletes away from refuted and dangerous supplements while maintaining open and honest lines of communication, more serious health risks can be avoided. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been studied for its replacement role in older men and women. These studies16,17 found that testosterone levels increased in women, but remained unchanged in men without any changes in body composition being noted. There are no published studies on its ergogenic benefits in young athletes. An eight-week study18 looked at androstenedione supplementation in 30 men aged 19 to 29 years during resistance training. No differences in muscle size, strength or overall body composition were noted. One study19 showed a transient increase in serum testosterone levels, but no ergogenic benefit was demonstrated. Many other supplements have been advertised for their purported ergogenic properties, and the list grows every year. Table 3 provides a brief summary of the most common active ingredients that physicians may hear about from their patients who are athletes. When advising patients on ergogenic aids, it is important that the doctor knows the subject. The intervention that has the greatest effect is to ensure optimal eating habits.

Providing adequate energy intake, carbohydrates and proteins in the diet and their effective use by the body will lead to the most effective and safest results.36,40 Harmful effects have been reported for several ergogenic products. Anabolic steroids have many side effects, most of which are associated with adverse androgenic effects, such as shrinking of the testicles, enlarged prostate, and lower sperm levels. Some of the side effects are potentially serious and irreversible and include heart, liver and immune system problems. Behavioral changes can include aggression, paranoia, mood swings, low libido, and depression. .